1 Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962).
2 Kira Gould and Lance Hosey, Women in Green: Voices of Sustainable Design (Ecotone Publishing, 2007), p.20.
3 Francis Chaboussou, Healthy Crops: A New Agricultural Revolution (Charlbury, UK: Jon Carpenter Publishing, 2004).
4 A Philippine-based Rockefeller-funded research center on rice breeding. See http://www.irri.org. For a comprehensive critique of the IRRI approach, see Nicanor Perlas and Renee Velvee, Oryza Nirvana? (Quezon City: Southeast Asian Regional Institute for Community Education, 1997).
5 For s critique of the Green Revolution, see Andrew Pearse, Seeds of Plenty, Seeds of Want (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. See also Vandana Shiva, The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology and Politics (London: Zed Books, 1991).
6 Mark Mikel and John Dudley, “Evolution of North American Dent Corn from Public to Proprietary Germplasm,” in Crop Science 46:1193-1205 (2006). See http://crop.scijournals.org/cgi/content/full/46/3/1193.
7 See for instance: Wayne Wenzel, “Syngenta buys Garst” (May 12, 2004) http://farmindustrynews.com/news/Syngenta-buys-Garst/
8 Matthew Dillon, “Monsanto buys Seminis”, Organic Broadcaster (Mar.-Arp. 2005) http://www.newfarm.org/features/2005/0205/seminisbuy/index.shtml
9 Carrey Gillam, “Monsanto to Buy Vegetable Seed Company” (April 1, 2008) http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/47728/story.htm
10 See The Crucible Group, People, Plants and Patents: The Impact of Intellectual Property on Trade, Plant biodiversity, and Rural Society, (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 1994.)
11 “Top Awards for Scientist Who Developed the First Transgenic Plant”, Pesticide Outlook June 2002.
12 See for instance U.S. patents 4900676, 4970168, 5276268, 5312912, 5382429, 5503999, 5498533, 5633434, 5648249, 6043409, 6130368, 6204436, 6495745, 6646184, 6791009, and 7314973
13 This term comes from Paul Hawken, The Ecology of Commerce (A Declaration of Sustainability), (New York: HarperCollins, 1993).
14 E. Anne Clark, “So, Who Really Won the Schmeiser Decision?” Crop Choice 13 June 2004, http://www.mindfully.org/GE/2004/Schmeiser-Who-Won13jun04.htm.
15 A thourough discussion can be found in Vandana Shiva, Protect or Plunder: Understanding Intellectual Property Rights, (London: Zed Books, 2001).
16 Food Research and Action Center, “Hunger in the U.S.”, http://www.frac.org/html/hunger_in_the_us/hunger_index.html
17 A small device plugged into a computer that enables an application program to run.
18 See a fuller discussion of these arguments in Roberto Verzola, Towards a Political Economy of Information: Studies on the Information Economy (Quezon City: Constantino Foundation). See also http://rverzola.files.wordpress.com/2008/01/infoeconomy-verzola.pdf.
19 See Philippine Greens, “Philippine Greens protest the visit of #1 U.S. cyberlord Bill Gates” March 20, 1998, http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/29/048.html.
20 For a fuller discussion, see Alan Story, Colin Darch and Debora Halbert (eds.), The Copy/South Dossier: Issues in the Economics, Politics and Ideology of Copyright in the Global South (Kent: University of Kent, 2006), http://www.copysouth.org/. See also Pradip Ninan Thomas and Jan Servaes (eds.), Intellectual Property Rights and Communications in Asia: Conflicting Traditions (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2006).
21 Adam Thierer and Wayne Crews, eds., Copy Fights: The Future of Intellectual Property in the Information Age, (Washington D.C.: Cato Institute, 2002).
22 See for instance Tiahan Xue, “Exploring Chinese Herbal Medicine Can Foster Discovery Of Better Drugs”, The Scientist 10(4):9, February 19, 1996.
23 Simon Montlake, “Milk Formula Goes on Trial in Asia”, Christian Science Monitor, June 22, 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0622/p05s01-woap.html
24 For an English version, see http://rverzola.wordpress.com/2007/12/27/bahay-kubo-english-translation/.
25 Steve Buckley, “Community Radio and Empowerment”, May 1, 2006. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/22022/11472542151Steve_Buckley.doc/...
26 See Ray Reece, The Sun Betrayed (Boston: Southend Press, 1979). See also Daniel Berman and John O'Connor, “Who Owns the Sun?” (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 1997).
27 For a full discussion, see James Boyle, Shamans, Software and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1996.
28 David Korten, When Corporations Rule the World (West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1996).
29 How this happens in the information economy is discussed in Peter Drahos and John Braithwaite, Information Feudalism: Who Owns the Knowledge Economy? New York: The New Press, 2002.) See also Verzola, “Cyberlords: rentier class of the information sector” in Towards a Political Economy, p. 145-161.
30 Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus, Economics 14th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1992), p.2.
31 Peter Rosset, Multiple Functions and Benefits of Small Farm Agriculture. Food First/The Institute for Food and Development Policy. September 1999. For a comprehensive discussion of the sustainable agriculture approach for small farms, see P.G. Fernandez, A.L. Aquino, LE.P. de Guzman and M.F.O. Mercado (eds.), Local Seed Systems for Genetic Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture Handbook (Los Banos, Laguna: University of the Philippines College of Agriculture, 2002).
32 Permaculture (permanent agriculture) is a system of designing farms that minimizes non-renewable energy requirements, ensures the continuous cycling of biomass, fills as many ecological niches as possible with food and cash crops, and provides for a wilderness area within the farm. See Bill Mollison, Permaculture: A Designer's Manual (Hyderabad: The Deccan Development Society, 1990).
33 Briefly, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it tends otherwise.” See Also Leopold, A Sand County Almanac. New York: Ballantine Books, 1966).
34 An ethic to “make the protection of water ecosystems a central goal in all that we do.” See Sandra Postel, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity (New York: W.W. Norton, 1997).
35 Barry Commoner, The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and Technology (New York: Bantam Books, 1971). See also Barry Commoner, Making Peace with the Planet. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1990).
36 Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics: 1) A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; 2) A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law; 3) A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. Programming firms with these robotic laws would have made corporations easier to control.
37 For a fuller discussion, see Verzola, Towards a Political, p. 170-190.
38 Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons”. Science 162 (1968).
39 Elinor Ostrom, Thomas Dietz, Nives Dolšak, Paul Stern, Susan Stonich and Elke Weber (eds.), The Drama of the Commons (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002). See also Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1990).